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Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.130. First Appearance 

(a)  Prompt First Appearance.  Except when previously released in a lawful manner, every arrested person shall be taken before a judicial officer, either in person or by electronic audiovisual device in the discretion of the court, within 24 hours of arrest. In the case of a child in the custody of juvenile authorities, against whom an information or indictment has been filed, the child shall be taken for a first appearance hearing within 24 hours of the filing of the information or indictment. The chief judge of the circuit for each county within the circuit shall designate 1 or more judicial officers from the circuit court, or county court, to be available for the first appearance and proceedings. The state attorney or an assistant state attorney and public defender or an assistant public defender shall attend the first appearance proceeding either in person or by other electronic means. First appearance hearings shall be held with adequate notice to the public defender and state attorney. An official record of the proceedings shall be maintained. If the defendant has retained counsel or expresses a desire to and is financially able, the attendance of the public defender or assistant public defender is not required at the first appearance, and the judge shall follow the procedure outlined in subdivision (c)(2).

(b)  Advice to Defendant.  At the defendant’s first appearance the judge shall immediately inform the defendant of the charge, including an alleged violation of probation or community control and provide the defendant with a copy of the complaint. The judge shall also adequately advise the defendant that:

(1) the defendant is not required to say anything, and that anything the defendant says may be used against the him or her;

(2) if unrepresented, that the defendant has a right to counsel, and, if financially unable to afford counsel, that counsel will be appointed; and

(3) the defendant has a right to communicate with counsel, family, or friends, and if necessary, will be provided reasonable means to do so.

(c)  Counsel for Defendant. 

(1)  Appointed Counsel.  If practicable, the judge should determine prior to the first appearance whether the defendant is financially able to afford counsel and whether the defendant desires representation. When the judge determines that the defendant is entitled to court-appointed counsel and desires counsel, the judge shall immediately appoint counsel. This determination must be made and, if required, counsel appointed no later than the time of the first appearance and before any other proceedings at the first appearance. If necessary, counsel may be appointed for the limited purpose of representing the defendant only at first appearance or at subsequent proceedings before the judge.

(2)  Retained Counsel.  When the defendant has employed counsel or is financially able and desires to employ counsel to represent him or her at first appearance, the judge shall allow the defendant a reasonable time to send for counsel and shall, if necessary, postpone the first appearance hearing for that purpose. The judge shall also, on request of the defendant, require an officer to communicate a message to such counsel as the defendant may name. The officer shall, with diligence and without cost to the defendant if the counsel is within the county, perform the duty. If the postponement will likely result in the continued incarceration of the defendant beyond a 24-hour period, at the request of the defendant the judge may appoint counsel to represent the defendant for the first appearance hearing.

(3)  Opportunity to Confer.  No further steps in the proceedings should be taken until the defendant and counsel have had an adequate opportunity to confer, unless the defendant has intelligently waived the right to be represented by counsel.

(4)  Waiver of Counsel.  The defendant may waive the right to counsel at first appearance. The waiver, containing an explanation of the right to counsel, shall be in writing and signed and dated by the defendant. This written waiver of counsel shall, in addition, contain a statement that it is limited to first appearance only and shall in no way be construed to be a waiver of counsel for subsequent proceedings.

(d)  Pretrial Release.  The judicial officer shall proceed to determine conditions of release pursuant to rule 3.131. For a defendant who has been arrested for violation of his or her probation or community control by committing a new violation of law, the judicial officer:

(1) May order the offender to be taken before the court that granted the probation or community control if the offender admits the violation;

(2) If the offender does not admit the violation at first appearance hearing, the judicial officer may commit and order the offender to be brought before the court that granted probation or community control, or may release the offender with or without bail to await further hearing, notwithstanding section 907.041, Florida Statutes, relating to pretrial detention and release. In determining whether to require or set the amount of bail, the judicial officer may consider whether the offender is more likely than not to receive a prison sanction for the violation.

(e) Bail Before Conviction; Condition of Undertaking.  (1) If a person is admitted to bail for appearance for a preliminary hearing or on a charge that a judge is empowered to try, the condition of the
undertaking shall be that the person will appear for the hearing or to answer the charge and will submit to the orders and process of the judge trying the same and will not depart without leave.
(2) If a person is admitted to bail after being held to answer by a judge or after an indictment or information on which the person is to be tried has been filed, the condition of the undertaking shall be that the person will appear to answer the charges before the court in which he or she may be prosecuted and submit to the orders and process of the court and will not depart without leave.

(f) Revocation of Bail. The court in its discretion for good cause, any time after a defendant who is at large on bail appears for trial, may commit the defendant to the custody of the proper official to abide by the judgment, sentence, and any further order of the court.

(g) Arrest and Commitment by Court. The court in which the cause is pending may direct the arrest and commitment of the defendant who is at large on bail when: (1) there has been a breach of the undertaking; (2) it appears that the defendant’s sureties or any of them are dead or cannot be found or are insufficient or have ceased to be residents of the state; or (3) the court is satisfied that the bail should be increased or new or additional security required. The order for the commitment of the defendant shall recite generally the facts on which it is based and shall direct that the defendant be arrested by any official authorized to make arrests and that the defendant be committed to the official in whose custody he or she would be if he or she had not been given bail, to be detained by such official until legally discharged. The defendant shall be arrested pursuant to such order on a certified copy thereof, in any county, in the same manner as on a warrant of arrest. If the order provided for is made because of the failure of the defendant to appear for judgment, the defendant shall be committed. If the order is made for any other cause, the court may determine the conditions of release, if any.

(h) Bail after Recommitment. If the defendant applies to be admitted to bail after recommitment, the court that recommitted the defendant shall determine conditions of release, if any, subject to the limitations of (b) above.

(i) Qualifications of Surety after Order of Recommitment. If the defendant offers bail after recommitment, each surety shall possess the qualifications and sufficiency and the bail shall be furnished in all respects in the manner prescribed for admission to bail before recommitment.

(j) Issuance of Capias; Bail Specified. On the filing of either an indictment or information charging the commission of a crime, if the person named therein is not in custody or at large on bail for the offense charged, the judge shall issue or shall direct the clerk to issue, either immediately or when so directed by the prosecuting attorney, a capias for the arrest of the person. If the person named in the indictment or information is a child and the child has been served with a promise to appear under the Florida Rules of Juvenile Procedure, capias need not be issued. Upon the filing of the indictment or information, the judge shall endorse the amount of bail, if any, and may authorize the setting or modification of bail by the judge presiding over the defendant’s first appearance hearing. This endorsement shall be made on the capias and signed by the judge.

(k) Summons on Misdemeanor Charge. When a complaint is filed charging the commission of a misdemeanor only and the judge deems that process should issue as a result, or when an indictment or information on which the defendant is to be tried charging the commission of a misdemeanor only, and the person named in it is not in custody or at large on bail for the offense charged, the judge shall direct the clerk to issue a summons instead of a capias unless the judge has reasonable ground to believe that the person will not appear in response to a summons, in which event an arrest warrant or a capias shall be issued with the amount of bail endorsed on it. The summons shall state substantially the nature of the offense and shall command the person against whom the complaint was made to appear before the judge issuing the summons or the judge having jurisdiction of the offense at a time and place stated in it.

(l) Summons When Defendant Is Corporation. On the filing of an indictment or information or complaint charging a corporation with the commission of a crime, whether felony or misdemeanor, the judge shall direct the clerk to issue or shall issue a summons to secure its appearance to answer the charge. If, after being summoned, the corporation does not appear, a plea of not guilty shall be entered and trial and judgment shall follow without further process.

Committee Notes

1968 Adoption.

(a) Same as section 903.01, Florida Statutes.  (b) Same as section 903.04, Florida Statutes. (c) Same as section 903.02, Florida Statutes. (d) Same as section 903.12, Florida Statutes. (e) Substantially same as section 903.13, Florida Statutes. (f) Same as section 903.19, Florida Statutes. (g) Same as section 918.01, Florida Statutes. (h) Substantially same as section 903.23, Florida Statutes. (i) Same as section 903.24, Florida Statutes. (j) Same as section 903.25, Florida Statutes. (k) and (l) Formerly rule 3.150(c). These proposals contain the essentials of present sections 907.01, 907.02, and 901.09(3), Florida Statutes, a change of some of the terminology being warranted for purpose of clarity. (m) Formerly rule 3.150(c). This proposal contains all of the essentials of section 907.03, Florida Statutes, and that part of section 901.14, Florida Statutes, pertaining to postindictment or postinformation procedure. A charge by affidavit is provided. Although subdivision (g) is the same as section 918.01, Florida Statutes, its constitutionality was questioned by the subcommittee, constitutional right to bail and presumption of innocence. 1972 Amendment. Same as prior rule except (b), which is new. (k), (l), and (m) are taken from prior rule 3.150. 1977 Amendment. This proposal amends subdivision (b)(4) of the present rule [formerly rule 3.130(b)(4)] to expand the forms of pretrial release available to the judge. The options are the same as those available under the federal rules without the presumption in favor of release on personal recognizance or unsecured appearance. This proposal leaves it to the sound discretion of the judge to determine the least onerous form of release which will still insure the defendant’s appearance. It also sets forth the specific factors the judge should take into account in making this determination.

1983 Amendment. Rule 3.131(d) is intended to replace former rule 3.130(f) and therefore contemplates all subsequent modifications of bail including all increases or reductions of monetary bail or any other changes sought by the state or by the defendant.

Court Comment

1977 Amendment. Subdivision (a) was repealed by Chapter 76-138, §2, Laws of Florida, insofar as it was inconsistent with the provision of that statute. Subdivision (a) has been amended so as to comply with the legislative act.